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Genetics, Most Critical Things You Need To Know

All expectant parents certainly want their children born and grow up healthy. 
Genetics, Most Critical Things You Need To Know

Genetics, the most important things you need to know

There are several inherited diseases - genetic diseases and we do not always know that we are sick and transmit the disease through inheritance.

Therefore, it is necessary to pass a medical genetic examination before the conception of a child and before birth, The birth of a child is a joyous event for the parents of the family.

But pregnancy isn't always good and uncomplicated Recently, more and more genetic diseases have been observed, There are many factors that influence this.

What is genetics?

First of all, you have to say a few words about genetics - which is the science of heritage, It has embarked on a difficult path in its historical development, But over the past century, doctors have made great progress in creating genetic tests to identify genes that cause many inherited congenital diseases.

This allowed doctors to diagnose many inherited diseases prior to conception and continue the exam in pregnancy Any family that intentionally plans to get pregnant is concerned about the health of the fetus.

As a result, more and more parents approaching are turning to doctors for advice on genetic diseases, Genetic counseling and prenatal diagnostic methods help prevent serious inherited diseases in children.

Genetic risk groups:

There are groups with genetic risk - these are categories of people at high risk of having a child with inherited diseases, These groups include:
  1. Parents with inherited family diseases.
  2. Weddings inbreeding (royal dynasties are an excellent example).
  3. Pregnant women with a bad history (repeated miscarriages.
  4. Birth of a dead child.
  5. Lost pregnancies and infertile women for no established medical reason).
  6. Like women 35 and over 40.
In addition, thieves who experience undesirable factors such as radiation, prolonged exposure to harmful chemicals, and women who use teate-gene (food) medications during pregnancy are at risk.

All prospective high-risk parents are prescribed additional genetic tests to prevent the disease from inheriting

You can prevent a child's illness by:

Heritage plays an important role in human education, We have all borrowed from our parents and grandparents, who have four aspects, character and health characteristics of different generations.

Genetics is a science that investigates the mechanisms of inherited diseases. Currently, pregnant women should undergo genetic testing to quickly rule out or identify diseases.

How does this procedure work and is it so important?

  • Perital genetic diagnosis:
Perifical diagnosis is an intrauterine examination of the fetus, for the identification of hereditary diseases and malformations, There are two types of diagnosis for Italian: non-invasive and invasive methods.

If noninvasive methods are safe for the mother and fetus (ultrasound, the biochemistry of the blood), the invasive methods involve a certain "invasion" of the uterine cavity to take the material for research and determine the fetal karyotype with great precision.

This allows the exclusion of diseases such as Down syndromes, Edwards, and other equally dangerous genetic diseases.

The Importance of Genetic Counseling During Pregnancy:

This procedure gained popularity in the last century because science has gone a long way, and it has become possible to diagnose diseases that are inherited or arise due to several other reasons, in utero.

Each parent is concerned about the health of the future baby, so the examination is relevant, especially for couples where there is a high risk of pathologies For example if one of the partners suffers from epilepsy, hemophilia, asthma, diabetes, and other serious illnesses.

When planning a pregnancy, many couples come to a consultation with a geneticist in advance to eliminate problems Still, it is not too late to make the procedure at the conception.

Consultation with a specialist geneticist is necessary to verify the health of the baby, to identify a predisposition to certain diseases, or to identify existing mutations and pathologies.

This procedure is freely available, and parents can make an appointment at any time and undergo an examination, During the conversation, be sure to talk about the causes, possible suspicions, and pass the appropriate tests.

Women at risk:

As in any other cases, there is a risk group, which includes women in labor:
  1. At the age of 35, Patients have a high level of risk of having a child with abnormalities.
  2. In the presence of relatives who suffer from hereditary diseases.
  3. With a history of several miscarriages, the birth of dead children, infertility.
  4. If the couple is blood relatives.
  5. Contact of a woman with aggressive, toxic substances, radiation exposure, or chemical exposure.
  6. The presence of children with chromosomal pathologies.
  7. Women with diseases of the endocrine system.
  8. Multiple pregnancies.

Who needs a genetics consultation?

Modern doctors strongly recommend that every couple planning a baby undergo preliminary genetic counseling – even young, perfectly healthy people from healthy families can be carriers of pathological genes.

Gene breakdown is not always inherited – it can occur spontaneously due to a mutation under the influence of adverse external factors, some of which you cannot even guess at. 

Therefore, it is better to check in advance the health of the couple planning the conception.

At the same time, for those couples who are at risk, an examination by a geneticist is necessary and necessary, These are couples in which:

  • At least one of the partners or their close relatives suffers from one or another hereditary disease or has congenital malformations.
  • In the past, a couple gave birth to children with hereditary pathologies or malformations, or the pregnancy was terminated due to severe fetal malformations.
  • The woman’s age in a pair exceeds 35 years, and/or the father’s age exceeds 40 years.
  • Partners are blood relatives (including the II-III degree of kinship: cousins or second cousins, uncle and niece, etc.).

In the past, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and frozen pregnancies have occurred.
Genetics consultation is also recommended during pregnancy if:

  • There is a high risk of early miscarriage.
  • The organism of the future mother in the first weeks of pregnancy was affected by harmful environmental factors, ionizing radiation, there was poisoning with toxic substances, or the woman took some medications that have a teratogenic effect on the fetus.
  • There is a possibility of intrauterine infection of the fetus, especially with some viral infections.
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