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Preterm Birth: Most Common Reasons And Complications

Preterm birth is a woman's greatest fear because she fears for the life of her unborn child, who has been waiting for several months.
Preterm Birth: Most Common Reasons And Complications

Premature birth: the most common reasons and complications

What is preterm birth? Why did it happen? And what are its effects on my baby's life? I'll try to explain most of the things that might affect you.

Premature birth means:

As we know, the normal area of pregnancy lasts 38-40 weeks, which is the time that the child should be ready to live outside the womb without any problem.

Sometimes, however, birth occurs earlier than expected, which in turn causes many risks and negative effects for your baby, this situation called preterm birth. 

Preterm births occur in 5 to 18% of pregnancies and are one of the leading causes of childhood disease and death.

Unlike full-time babies, premature babies don't have enough time in the womb to develop their organs and be ready for life outside the womb.

This means that the longer in the womb, the more complete the period of pregnancy, the more developed and mature the baby's organs will be, the greater the chances of living outside the uterus.

Therefore, premature babies need special care first by qualified specialists, then by parents, actually, some of the premature babies stay in the hospital for a long period of time-based on their body status.

Premature ratings?

After staying in the hospital in the NICU neonatal intensive care unit for a certain period of time under medical care, then babies reach the necessary growth and organ development limit, which helps them go home without medical help (in some cases, the child needs repeated hospital visits).

As a general rule, defined premature babies depend on universal classifications.

1- By childhood (inside the uterus): This classification is divided as follows:


  • a- Early afternoon: Neonatal last in the womb for 32-37 weeks.


  • b- Moderately early: Neonatals last in the womb for 28-32 weeks.


  • c- Extremely early: Neonatals last less than 28 weeks in the womb.


2- By child weight (at birth): This classification is divided as follows:

  • a- Low birth weight LBW: Baby birth weight less than 2500 grams.


  • b- Very low birth weight VLBW: Baby birth weight less than 1500 grams.

  • c- ELBW extremely low birth weight: Baby birth weight less than 1000 grams.

Reasons for preterm birth:

However, there are many reasons that can lead to preterm birth that requires them to know, which are as follows:

  • Reason One: Vaginal infections

There are many vaginal infections that affect the uterus and cause premature delivery, however, it is classified as one of the most common reasons for preterm birth so, you need to consult with your doctor if you are pregnant and suffer from an infection that can affect your pregnancy.


  • Reason two: Viral infections

For example, but not limited rubella and herpes... Std.


  • Reason three: age factor.


The safest age range for pregnancies between 18 and 35 years, Studies have suggested that pregnancy is considered risky for women under the age of 18 and for women over 35.


  •  Reason four: Placenta Baja (Placenta Praevia).

As we know, the placenta develops in the uterus as soon as you are pregnant with the baby, and is the baby with the mother's blood system.

In some women who have placenta attached to a low level in the uterus (rather than being attached to the uterine wall at a high level) and may partially or completely cover the cervix, this cover in some cases persists for advanced stages of pregnancy, causing severe bleeding that can endanger the life of the baby and mother, and in this case, a C-section is needed to deliver.
  •  Reason five: Multiple pregnancies
Repeated pregnancy in a short period of time can lead to pre-pregnancy, However, studies show that preterm birth can occur in 75% in women in the first pregnancy and in women who have previously given birth to 45%, Keep in mind that the risk of preterm birth increases if womon is pregnant in twins or other multiples, Even if you had a preterm birth in your previous delivery or an interval of less than six months between pregnancies.


  • Reason Six: Amniotic fluid infections.
  • Reason Seven: Using illicit drugs or smoking cigarettes.
  •  Reason Eight: Chronic conditions.
  • Reason Nine: life events and bad habits lifestyle.

For example but not limited, the death of a loved one, not getting enough healthy food.


  • Reason Ten: Vaginal bleeding during pregnancy.

Signs and general symptoms of preterm birth:

  1. Annoying cramps: like menstrual cycle cramps persist for a long time (hours).
  2. Lower back pain with some pressure.
  3. Bleeding or gush of fluid from the vagina.
  4. Birth contractions with an increase in its rates.

Preterm birth complications:

  • 1- Breathing problems, this is due to immature lungs.
  • 2- Heart and blood problems.
  • 3- Vision problems.

Such as the retinopathy of prematurity.

  • 4- Brain problems.

Such as the bleeding in the brain.

  • 5- problems in controlling the body temperature.
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